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(a) The schematic cross-section and (b) the schematic equilibrium energy band diagram of the heterojunction with ELITE solar cell structure.
Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) image of c-Si:H layers grown on c-Si substrates showing (a) crystalline to non-crystalline phase transition due to accumulated strain in the c-Si:H layer, resulting in a rough crystalline/non-crystalline transition interface, and (b) c-Si:H film grown at conditions, resulting in a lower accumulated strain so that the phase transition is avoided.
Schematic cross-sections of the (a) test cells used for characterizing the n + doped c-Si:H/a-Si:H emitter stack and (b) test structures coated symmetrically on both sides with the same emitter stack as that of the corresponding test cells, used for μ-PCD measurements.
(a) Open circuit voltages and dark current densities of test cells of Fig. 3(a), and the contribution of the emitter junction to the dark current density calculated from PCD measurements on test structures of Fig. 3(b); and (b) effective minority carrier lifetime versus minority carrier density from PCD measurements on test structures of Fig. 3(b).
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