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SEM micrograph of an array of free-standing PZT nanotubes removed from the underlying substrate over a top view of a virgin nanotube array. Note the thin layer of Al2O3 connecting adjacent nanotubes.
(a) SS-PFM piezoresponse hysteresis loops for hard-template (red square) and soft-template (black diamond) grown PZT nanotubes with 5:1 aspect ratio and 20 nm-thick walls. (b) Schematic illustration of intermediate non-180° polarization rotation under applied electric field for a free-standing (left) and laterally constrained (right) domain. Black lines represent the domain before application of the external electric field (E), and the red, dashed lines represent a possible intermediate configuration upon application of the external electric field.
(a) SS-PFM piezoresponse-electric field hysteresis loops and (b) the extracted remanent piezoresponse and coercive field for free-standing PZT nanotubes with aspect ratios ranging from 2.5:1 to 5:1. (c) Bias-dependence of the piezoresponse for PZT tubes with 5:1 aspect ratio and 100 nm outer diameter. (d) Irreversible to reversible Rayleigh parameters' ratio as a function of aspect ratio for 100 nm (black diamond) and 200 nm (red square) outer-diameter PZT nanotubes.
Piezoresponse and Rayleigh parameters for hard- and soft- template grown 5:1 PZT nanotubes with 20 nm-thick PZT walls.
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