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(a) Schematic of the DRACULA plasma reactor, showing the Hiden Mass Spectrometer (A), ion flux probe array (B), hairpin resonator probe (C), SOLAYL VI probe (D), blocking capacitor (4.5 nF; E), rf power generator (F), function generator (G), dielectric spacers between the powered and grounded electrodes (H), and high-voltage probe (I). (b) Measured voltage waveforms on the powered electrode for a 3 harmonic peaks (solid curve) and valleys (dashed curve) waveform.
(a) Electron density and (b) dc bias, as a function of the number of applied harmonics. The pressure is 50 mTorr, and the applied voltage is 100 V peak-to-peak. The closed triangles are for peaks waveforms, while the closed upside-down triangles are for valleys waveforms.
(a) Ion current density on the grounded electrode as a function of radial distance for a single frequency sinusoidal waveform (closed circles), a 4 harmonic peaks waveform (closed triangles), and a 4 harmonic valleys waveform (closed upside-down triangles). The vertical dashed lines mark the radial boundaries, while the dashed-dotted line indicates the central axis of DRACULA. The pressure is 50 mTorr, and the applied voltage is 100 V peak-to-peak. (b) Ratio of the valleys-to-peaks ion flux at the center of the grounded electrode as a function of the number of applied harmonics.
(a) IF-DFs on the grounded electrode for peaks and valleys waveforms at 20 mTorr and an applied voltage of 100 V peak-to-peak. (b) Average ion energy on the grounded electrode for peaks (dashed curves and closed triangles) and valleys (solid curves and closed upside-down triangles) at pressures of 20 mTorr, 50 mTorr, and 90 mTorr. The applied voltage is 100 V peak-to-peak.
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