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(a) Schematics of droplet generation, (b) variation in the diameter of droplet with respect to the applied pulse width, and (c) photograph of the droplets ejected into liquid nitrogen. The scale bar is 300 μm.
(a) Experimental results on the probability distribution of the number of cells and (b) analytical results on the probability distribution of the number of cells. The cell concentration of suspension is 1.0 × 106/ml.
(a)-(d) Time sequence of droplet formation calculated numerically. (e) and (f) Experimental observations.
(a) Plot of temperature with respect to time, (b) temperature contour across the droplet for an elapsed time of 0.07, (c) plot of the degree of crystallization with respect to time, and (d) crystallinity contour across the droplet for an elapsed time of 0.07 s. The scale bar indicates 50 μm.
(a) and (b) Fluorescent images of post-thaw cells (HepG2) after the live/dead test. (c) Bright field image taken after long-term culture (day 7). (d) Resorufin fluorescent image indicating the functionality of thawed cells. The scale bars are 100 μm.
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