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Representative atomic force micrographs of the surface of indium tin oxide-coated, solvent-cleaned glass substrates (a) before and (b) after CO2 snow cleaning, and (c) the statistics of particle heights for the areas in (a) and (b).
(a) Specific series resistance (R s A) and fill factor (FF) for SubPc- (open squares and dashed line), and DPSQ- (solid squares and solid line) based organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells employing a C60 acceptor. (b) Short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (ηp ) for SubPc and DPSQ OPVs with different areas. The same line symbols are used as in (a).
Dark current density-vs-voltage (J-V) characteristics (data points) for ITO/MoO3 (15 nm)/DPSQ(13 nm)/C60(40 nm)/BCP(8 nm)/Al devices with various active areas. The solid lines indicate fits to the data. Ideality factors in the donor layer (n D) used in the fit are 5 ± 1, 15 ± 2, 10 ± 2, 12 ± 1 and 7.8 ± 0.7 for areas ranging from 0.01 to 6.25 cm2, respectively. Inset: Conceptual illustration of the effects on film morphology resulting from particles on the substrate surface.
Calculated dark J-V characteristics assuming a specific series resistance of RSA = 50 Ω·cm2 for various values of the saturation current density, J sD. Note that for the two lowest values of J sD, the curves overlap. Inset: Calculated relationship between FF and J sD.
The performance of representative SubPc/C60 devices with different anode buffer layers.
Parameters of OPVs with area of 1.44 cm2 with and without solvent cleaning. The SD is the standard deviation from the mean.
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