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TEM image of the stacked gate dielectric structure (a) and schematic diagram of energy band of the dual-CSL, where charge trapping mechanism during program operation is illustrated (b) for the Ti/Hf sample.
XPS spectrum for the dual-layer structures of HfON/TiON/Si and TiON/HfON/Si (a) and three Hf x Ti y ON films with different Hf/Ti ratios (b).
C-V hysteresis curves of the four samples (a) and VFB extracted from the C-V curves under different P/E voltages (b).
Change of flat-band voltage of the Ti/Hf and HfTi samples as a function of P/E time.
Endurance with the P/E cycles (a) and retention characteristics at room temperature (b) for the Ti/Hf and HfTi samples.
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