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Schematic configuration of STEM detectors: (a) annular DF detector under ABF, ADF, and HAADF conditions; and (b) circular BF detector under LABF, MABF, and HABF conditions. The camera length is shortened in the order of ABF, ADF, HAADF in DF-STEM imaging, and LABF, MABF, HABF in BF-STEM imaging. (c) Schematic diagram of double-detector STEM imaging. The top annular detector and the bottom circular detector are placed separating the distance.
In each experiment, the schematic detector positions of the annular and circular detector overlaid the experimental PACBED pattern of the -orientated single-crystal SrTiO3. The camera length was set at (a) 8 cm, (b) 15 cm, and (c) 30 cm. The area of the red circle and the cyan region correspond to the circular BF detector and annular DF detector positions, respectively. The area of the annular detector is shown only for the inner detector position owing to the wide periphery of the annular detector.
Experimental atomic resolution STEM images of SrTiO3 single crystal viewed from the  direction: (a) HABF-, (b) HAADF-, (c) MABF-, (d) HAADF-, (e) LABF-, and (f) ADF-STEM images obtained with detector angles of 0-16 mrad, 70-185 mrad, 0-9.5 mrad, 40-160 mrad, 0-5 mrad, and 20-35 mrad, respectively.
Atomic resolution HAADF (cyan), MABF (red), double detector (cyan and red), and ABF-STEM (gray) images of light element compounds for (a)-(d) SrTiO3 , (e)-(h) GaN , and (i)-(l) LiCoO2 . In the MABF-STEM images, the lithium, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms are clearly visible. The insets are crystal models for the double detector-STEM and ABF-STEM images.
Detector angles for the combination of BF- and DF-STEM with camera length and corresponding STEM condition.
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