1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
In-operando and non-destructive analysis of the resistive switching in the Ti/HfO2/TiN-based system by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1063/1.4756897
/content/aip/journal/apl/101/14/10.1063/1.4756897
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/14/10.1063/1.4756897

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Setup of the in-operando HAXPES measurements. The wire-bonded 0.7 × 0.7 mm2 MIM device (a), mounted on a printed circuit board (b) and (c) and connected via SMA connectors and vacuum feedthroughs to a semiconductor characterization system, can be in-situ studied inside the HAXPES vacuum chamber (d).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

DC sweep I-V characteristics of the RS obtained in-situ. Seven cycles were performed with a ROFF/RON ratio of ∼7. The inset shows the current levels for both ON- and OFF-states before and after the HAXPES experiments (a). A double logarithmic plot of the I-V characteristics during the Set process (on the left) and the Reset process (on the right) (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Ti 2p HAXPES spectra of the RRAM cell in the virgin- (a), OFF- (b), and ON- (c) states, recorded at an excitation energy of 8 keV. A Shirley background and five spectral components corresponding to the titanium oxidation states between 0 and 4+ are shown.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Normalized and smoothed HAXPES spectra of (a) the Hf 4f doublet and the O 2s line and (b) the O 1s and Hf 4s lines recorded at an excitation energy of 8 keV from the sample in the virgin-, OFF-, and ON-states. A Shirley background was subtracted. The shifts of the Hf 4f 7/2 and O 1s main peaks are highlighted in the insets.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Sketch of the proposed electronic and chemical modifications between the virgin- (a), OFF- (b), and ON- (c) states of the RS in the Ti/HfO2/TiN-based system. The different concentrations of oxygen vacancies (VO ··) at the Ti/HfO2 interface in the OFF- and ON-states give rise to the band bending. The used symbols are defined as: Φ b—the conduction band offset, Φ m—the metal work function, BE—the binding energy, E g—the gap energy, E F—the Fermi level, CB—the conduction band, VB—the valence band, and χ—the electron affinity.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Differences in the concentration Φ of the different oxidation states of the titanium 2p core level between the virgin-, OFF-, and ON-states. The bold values show the main differences between the OFF- and ON-states.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Experimental peak shifts (ΔBEOFF/ON = BEOFF/ON − BEvirgin) between the OFF- or ON-states and the virgin-state, for metallic Ti 2p 3/2 (Ti0), Hf 4f 7/2, and O 1s lines.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aip/journal/apl/101/14/10.1063/1.4756897
2012-10-01
2014-04-17
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: In-operando and non-destructive analysis of the resistive switching in the Ti/HfO2/TiN-based system by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/14/10.1063/1.4756897
10.1063/1.4756897
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM