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Compression isotherm of stearic acid Langmuir monolayer. The inset shows the LS deposition technique.
Schematic illustration (not to scale) of the water gating setup, as described. Inset: Positive bias applied to gate needle leads to an electron accumulation layer at the ZnO surface. Also shown are the anionic EDL in the water near the gate needle and the cationic EDL in the water near the ZnO surface.
Output (a) and saturated transfer (b) characteristics of water-gated HMDS-ZnO TFTs. Gate voltage step between different output characteristics in (a) was 0.2 V. In (b), the source-drain voltage for the saturated transfer characteristics was 0.9 V. The dashed and solid lines in (b) refer to the ISD 1/2 and log ISD scales, respectively.
Output characteristics of water-gated ZnO TFTs, using the tip of a straight tungsten needle. (a) HMDS-ZnO. Note the smaller drain currents, lack of saturation, and stronger hysteresis, compared to HMDS-ZnO gated with L-shaped needle Fig. 3(a). (b) Stearic acid-ZnO. Source-drain currents are smaller still, and there is visible source-to-gate leakage.
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