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(a) Out-of-plane domain structure of the non-etched LBFO surface successively poled by positive bias (large square, 2μm × 2μm) and negative bias (center square, 0.5μm × 0.5μm). (b) Experiment setup for the polarization switching by electric pulses. (c) Time dependence of the switching current with varied negative Vpulse . (d) 2Pr-Vpulse curve derived from the transient current.
(a) I-V curves measured at each intermediate polarization state. (b) R-Vpulse curve with a minimal value at coercive voltage. (c) Resistance distributions of the DPS, UPS, and ZPS poled by the inset pulse trains.
I-V curves measured after the treatments of ±40 V alternative pulses (a) and −40 V identical pulses (b). Inset: Resistance (read at −4 V) dependence on switching cycles or pulse numbers. (c) Band diagram of the Ag/LBFO/LSMO device.
(a) Frequency dependence of the electric modulus M″ (imaginary part) after the treatment by 1000 alternative pulses or 1000 identical pulses. (b) Cole-cole plots of the real and imaginary impedances. Hollow symbols are experimental data and solid lines are results of curve-fitting. (c) Schematic domain structure of the LBFO film after alternative or identical pulse treatment. Local leakage paths form along the conductive domain walls. (d) Variation of Pr under different pulse treatments.
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