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Effect of the diamondoid coating on energy distribution of the secondary electron yield following x-ray absorption. (1) Resonant absorption of a soft x-ray photon by excitation of a core level electron into an empty valence state. (2) Recombination of excited state through emission of an Auger electron. (3) Generation of secondary electrons through inelastic scattering of Auger electron and photo electron. (4) Mono-chromatization of secondary electrons in diamondoid layer followed by emission from LUMO. Inset shows energy distribution of secondary electrons ejected from a metal (Au) surface after excitation by 700 eV x-ray photons with (red) and without (black) the diamondoid coating. Also shown, the energy distribution of secondary electrons after excitation by 5 eV UV-photons (blue) without diamondoid coating and 55 eV extreme UV photons (green) with diamondoid coating.
X-PEEM images of magnetic domains in a Co/Pd multilayer obtained at an acceleration voltage of 10 kV and using a back focal aperture of 35 μm. The image on the left hand side was obtained without the diamondoid coating and the image on the right hand side with the diamondoid coating. In both cases, an exposure time of 80 s was chosen.
X-PEEM images of magnetic domains (top row) and the topography (bottom row) of Co/Pd bit patterned media with a period of 60 nm/(35 nm bits/25 nm spacing). The total exposure time was 300 s. The left column shows images without the diamondoid coating and the right column images obtained with diamondoid coating. Magnetic and topographic images were obtained at the same area of the sample. The bottom panel shows horizontal line scans of the sample with (black) and without (red) diamondoid coating to illustrate the resolution improvement.
(a) X-PEEM image of the same sample obtained using chemical contrast mechanism at the carbon π* resonance. The nanowires as well as the nanoparticles (see inset) can clearly be identified and resolved. An exposure time of 120 s was used. (b) XAS spectrum obtained from the nanowires, which appear white in (a). The peak at 284.7 eV is indication of the presence of π*-orbitals, indicative of sp2 bonding. The image was obtained using this photon energy. (c) Horizontal linescan across the inset in (a). The spacing between the particles is 13 nm. (d) Vertical linescan across the inset in (a). The size of the particles is determined to be 10.5 nm and 13.5 nm.
Optical transfer function determined using coated (black) and uncoated (red) samples. In all cases, the acceleration voltage has been set to 20 kV and the 15 μm aperture has been used. Data have been obtained using magnetic, topographic, and chemical contrasts using the samples discussed in Figures 2–4 , The diamondoid coating leads to a consistent increase in contrast transfer of 2.5. Maximum contrast is obtained up to structure sizes of 100 nm (5 μm−1), while the contrast transfer of uncoated samples is already reduced by a factor of two. Ultimately 10 nm structures can be resolved (3% contrast transfer) using diamondoid coating.
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