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Locomotion of gecko's toes and IPMC actuation. (a) Toe extension; (b) toe crimping; (c) actuation mechanism of an IPMC.
Actuation performance of the MWCNT/Nafion IPMC. (a) Schematic illustration of the test apparatus; (b) image of the tip displacement of the IPMC; (c) blocking forces of Nafion IPMC and MWCNT/Nafion-IPMC; (d) cantilever model based on the actuation principle of the actuator.
(a) Relationship between the normal force and the shear strength of the gecko foot moving at the wall. The normal preload is around 10 mN; (b) the MWCNT/Nafion-IPMC lifting a 1-gf counterweight up and down.
Gecko-inspired adhesive arrays actuated by an IPMC. (a) Schematic illustration of the actuation structure; (b) the adhesive arrays; (c) normal adhesion force of active actuation (voltages: 1.5, 2, and 3 V, frequency: 0.1 Hz, wave: sinusoidal).
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