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Polarization-stable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with inverted grating relief for use in microscale atomic clocks
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10.1063/1.4764010
/content/aip/journal/apl/101/17/10.1063/1.4764010
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/17/10.1063/1.4764010
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Optical micrograph of a fully processed VCSEL with an inverted grating relief (left) and its surface profile measured with an atomic force microscope (right). The grating relief has a diameter of , a grating period of , and an etch depth of 70 nm.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Polarization-resolved operation characteristics of a grating relief VCSEL with active diameter at 80 °C substrate temperature. The grating relief has a diameter of , a grating period of , and an etch depth of 70 nm.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Polarization-resolved spectra of the VCSEL from Fig. 2 at 3.8 mA bias current.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Polarization-resolved operation characteristics of a grating relief VCSEL with active diameter at substrate temperatures from 20 to 100 °C in steps of 20 °C. The grating relief has a diameter of , a grating period of , and an etch depth of 70 nm.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Polarization-resolved operation characteristics of a reference VCSEL with 5 μm active diameter at 80 °C substrate temperature. The emission spectra in the insets show higher-order lasing modes. The polarization directions of the two orthogonal, linearly polarized fundamental modes are rotated by 15° towards the [] axis.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Polarization-resolved operation characteristics of the grating relief VCSEL from Fig. 4 at 80 °C substrate temperature. The emission spectra in the insets show SMSRs of at least 20 dB.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Output power (top), slope efficiency (middle), and threshold current (bottom) evolution in a long-term test of grating relief VCSELs with different active diameters , all driven at 3 mA bias current. After 2500 h, the ambient temperature was increased from 80 to 120 °C.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/101/17/10.1063/1.4764010
2012-10-23
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Polarization-stable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with inverted grating relief for use in microscale atomic clocks
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/17/10.1063/1.4764010
10.1063/1.4764010
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