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(a) Experiment schematic showing Pt/Co/GdOx structure. (1) BeCu microprobe for voltage application, (2) W microprobe to create artificial DW nucleation site and focused MOKE laser probe. (b) Normalized MOKE signal transients measured at different distances s between MOKE probing spot and artificial nucleation site.
Polar MOKE maps, showing domain expansion from artificial nucleation site at t = 6.3 ms (a), (e), 11.9 ms (b), (f), and 14.7 ms (c), (g) after application of magnetic field step, at V g = 0 V (a)-(c) and at V g = 8 V (e)-(g). (d) Contour map showing mean switching time (t 1/2) with V g = 0 V. (h) Line scan of t 1/2 across gate electrode at V g = −8, 0, and +8 V for another device with larger distance between electrode and nucleation site. Black triangular area on right side of (a)-(g) and on left side of (e)-(g) corresponds to W and BeCu microprobe tip, respectively. Dashed black line in (a), (e) outlines gate electrode. All measurements at H = 170 Oe and T = 35 °C.
DW velocity v as a function of (a) temperature (T) at H = 170 Oe and V g = 0 V, (b) magnetic field (H) at T = 35 °C and V g = 0 V, and (c) gate voltage (V g) at H = 170 Oe and T = 35 °C. Red lines are linear fits. Error bars in (a) and (b) are smaller than symbols.
(a) Ratio between DW velocity at V g = −4 V (v − 4V) and at 0 V (v 0V) as a function of DW velocity v 0V. (b) Subset of same data plotted versus activation energy barrier at V g = 0 V (E a,0V). Red lines are linear fits.
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