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Examples of electromechanical membrane wrinkling: (a) inhomogeneous biaxial wrinkling; (b) uniaxial wrinkling through non-equal pre-stretches; (c) uniaxial wrinkling through concave electrode geometry.
Arbitrary DE membrane for theoretical analysis, shown in (a) flat state and (b) wrinkled state.
Theoretical voltage-stretch curves for various values of biaxial stretch constant, B, with a transition from flat to wrinkled states denoted by a cross.
Rotational actuation results: (a) plan view of the passive actuator (0 kV); (b) active rotation at 4.6 kV with uniaxial (arrows) and biaxial (crosses) wrinkled regions marked; (c) measurements of stable rotational output against applied voltage (driving frequency = 0.5 Hz), with first instance of wrinkling noted by the dashed line at 4.45 kV.
Digital image correlation measurements of membrane rotation. The rigid central end effector (dashed circle) and the passive (solid lines) and active electrode geometries (dotted lines) are overlaid (data were interpolated in matlab using the natural neighbor method to fill in missing values (3.3% of total) with spatial resolution increased from ∼ 1.6 × 1.6 mm to 1 × 1 mm).
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