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J-V characteristics for the SrTiO3 MIM capacitors from 280 to 400 K. Insets are illustrations of conduction mechanism under different voltage polarities.
A model for the displacement and migration of oxygen vacancies near the bottom electrode interface under an applied voltage at (a) low temperature and (b) high temperature relative to the onset of migration of OVs.
(a) The leakage-current density at +4 V during the temperature variation from 300 K → 400 K → 300 K. Inset are OVs locations in relation to the BE before and after annealing cycle. (b) The leakage current at 300 K before and after the annealing cycle, and at the peak temperature of 400 K. Insets are illustrations of the model involving OVs in relation to the BE.
Effect of temperature on the leakage-current density after annealing the MIM device at 400 K under a positive dc bias of 4 V. Inset is the leakage current variation by increasing temperature at −4 V.
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