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The non-saturation response of a 4-mm dielectric liquid droplet at different applied voltages. (a) The experimental side-view images of the liquid droplet were captured with applied voltages of (1) 21 V, (2) 113 V, and (3) 215 Vrms, which corresponds to contact angles of 22°, 90°, and 176°, respectively. (b) Experimental data and curve fitting using Eq. (1) are plotted in black dots and in red line, respectively.
Cross section of energy distributions of a dielectric droplet with 4 mm in diameter under an applied voltage of 215 Vrms.
The information of a dielectric droplet in liquid actuated at 113 Vrms and 215 Vrms, respectively. (a) The profiles of a droplet, (b) the magnitude of dielectric force acting on the liquid-liquid interface, and (c) the strength of electric fields on the solid-liquid interface.
Summary of approaches dealing with saturation of contact angle change by electrowetting and by the dielectric force in this study.
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