Simple microwave field imaging technique using hot atomic vapor cells
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(a) Experimental setup. The microwave device under test is mounted next to an atomic vapor cell, which is connected to a Rb reservoir, a vacuum pump, and a Ne buffer gas reservoir. A laser images the hyperfine state distribution of the atoms in the cell onto a CCD camera. The cell is surrounded by magnetic field coils and sits inside an oven (not shown). (b) Ground-state hyperfine levels of in a weak static magnetic field. The microwave transitions i = 1…7 are indicated; transitions 3a + b and 5a + b are degenerate. The laser light selectively images the F = 2 state.
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Images of two exemplary microwave magnetic field components near a CPW and comparison to a simulation. (a) Top: Spatial distribution of , i.e., the polarization component for pointing along z. For this measurement, we probed the transition (i = 4) at . On top of the vapor cell, the CPW is indicated (s = 3 mm, g = 1 mm, wire thickness not to scale). The vapor cell glass wall prevents imaging at distances from the CPW. Bottom: Corresponding raw data of the change in optical density for different values of . This data were used to extract . (b) Distribution of measured on the transition (i = 1).
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