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(a) An AFM image of the (001) LaAlO3 substrate surface showing the terrace structure, and (b) a plan-view TEM image of the anatase TiO2 thin film exhibiting domains and its corresponding electron diffraction pattern. Dashed lines indicate the positions of substrate terrace edges, which are consistent with the widths of terrace structures in (a).
Plan-view HAADF-STEM image of a section of a domain boundary (indicated by arrows) between two TiO2 domains. There is no relative shift between the domains when observed in  zone axis of the film, only a variation in contrast. The inset in the upper right shows a projection of the anatase unit cell along the  zone axis.
(a) Cross-sectional TEM image of the Pt/TiO2/LaAlO3 thin film at low magnification showing the domains in the TiO2 phase; and (b) the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The Pt layer in (a) was deposited to facilitate FIB-TEM sample preparation.
Two TiO2//LaAlO3 interface structures: (a) HAADF-STEM image, (b) black-and-white ABF-STEM image, (c) color ABF-STEM image, and (d) schematic diagram of a (001) TiO2//(001) LaAlO3; and (e) HAADF-STEM image, (f) black-and-white ABF-STEM image, (g) color ABF-STEM image, and (h) schematic diagram of (001) TiO2//(001) LaAlO3.
(a) HAADF-STEM image and (b) corresponding schematic of 90° rotation domain boundary on an atomically flat substrate surface; (c) HAADF-STEM image and (d) corresponding schematic of mixed type domain boundary formed by 90° rotation plus a relative shift of α  LaAlO3 due to the substrate terrace; (e) and (g) HAADF-STEM images and (f) and (h) corresponding schematic of domain boundaries formed by a relative shift of α  LaAlO3 between domains of the same orientation, respectively. Vertical dotted lines demarcate the domain boundaries, while horizontal dashed lines show the relative shifts between domains in the  direction. Note that in the HAADF-STEM images, some domain boundaries and substrate terrace steps appear overlapped due to their being slightly inclined to the imaging direction.
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