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Distribution of atomic population used in the experiment. It consists of two AFCs centered on the sideband frequencies () and a broad central hole that allows the carrier beam to pass through without being stored. Here, the AFC peak-to-peak separation is , the comb finesse is 2, and its optical depth . The arrows represent the carrier and sideband frequencies of the modulated light. This plot is acquired by scanning the laser frequency slowly using a low light intensity to avoid spectral hole burning (6 MHz sweep in 10 ms, input ).
Experimental setup for creating AFCs and performing balanced heterodyne detection of photon echoes. AOM – acousto-optic modulator, EOM – electro-optic modulator, PBS – polarizing beam splitter, BS – non-polarizing beam splitter, D – detector.
(a) Example echo sequence with (red solid line) and without (blue dashed line) the phase modulation applied to the input pulse. The green shaded box represents the time window in which the echo intensity (noise level) is measured when the sidebands are on (off). (b) Intensity of the input pulse and the maximum signal in the echo detection window with sidebands on and off, as the power of the input pulse is varied. The signal is measured relative to the local oscillator noise. A linear fit has been made to the three data sets.
Comparison of an experimental data trace without the ultrasonic modulation and the results of a theoretical simulation.
(a) Experimental setup for detecting echoes using a scattered input beam. Al – piece of unpolished aluminium used to scatter the light. AOM 2 = −80 MHz, AOM 3 = +80 MHz. (b) Spatial distribution of the input beam after scattering. Image taken using a Dataray WinCamD beam profiler. (c) Typical echo sequence showing that the double AFC technique still works with highly scattered light.
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