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Single-crystalline BiFeO3 nanowires and their ferroelectric behavior
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26.JCPDS Card No. 20-0169.
28.An enviroscope atomic force microscope (Veeco) was used equipped with NSC36 cantilevers and tips coated with Co/Cr from Mikromasch. We used medium-stiff cantilevers (k ∼ 1 N/m) to achieve a low contact force. The resulting piezoelectric deformations transmitted to the cantilever and both out-of-plane and in-plane components were detected from the global deflection signal using two lock-in amplifiers (Signal Recovery, model 7265). The large bias required for hysteresis measurements was applied using a dc source (Keithley 2400 Sourcemeter) in series with the ac driving voltage.
29.The loops were acquired by scanning a dc bias in 200 steps, with the duration of each step being 0.1 s. The applied ac signal has amplitude of 0.5 V and frequency of 25 kHz.
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38. J. Wang, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, 2005. To eliminate the extrinsic contributions, we have chosen the permittivities ε ∼ ε ∼ 80 and ε ∼ 40 from Fig. 5.1.
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