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(a) Optical image using a 100× magnifying objective marked with AFM scan area (dashed square) and (b) corresponding SEM image of the device fabricated on the B:NCD film. (c) Topography AFM image of the device with height profile (red curve). (d) Current vs. voltage characteristics of the device measured at 5.4 K (red curve) and 54 mK (blue curve).
Schematic diagram of the feedback-controlled, high-current annealing process, before (a) and after (b) the formation of a nanometer-sized gap in the B:NCD device. (c) I-V graph of feedback-controlled, high-current annealing process. The red circles (for easy detection) indicate decrease in conductance while the arrow indicates the evolution of the I-V traces after sequential high-current annealing steps leading to a nanogap eventually.
(a) Raman spectra of the pristine B:NCD film (red curve) and close to the gap (blue curve) after high-current annealing process. Spatial map of the intensity of the Raman peak at 1211 cm−1 (b) with inset showing the laser scanning area (white dashed square) on the device, 1347 cm−1 (c), and 1590 cm−1 (d).
(a) Higher magnification SEM image (with false colored silicon oxide substrate) of one of the fabricated gaps in the B:NCD device. The red dotted circle indicates possible tunneling region. (b) I–V characteristics across the nanogap (red curve) and corresponding fit using the Simmons model for tunneling (black curve). Fit parameters used in Simmons model are area (A): 900 nm2, barrier height (ϕ): 1.15 eV, and gap size (z): 1.42 nm.
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