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Detecting signals buried in noise via nanowire transistors using stochastic resonance
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Device structure of an SRT. (a) A birds-eye view of an SRT with a double channel. Voltage applied to each electrical contact is also shown. (b) A cross-sectional views along the channel.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Current characteristics of an SRT. (a) I S1-V LG characteristics of an SRT when V D is changed from 1 to 2.5 V in 0.25-V steps. The slope of the dotted line indicates the SS of 60 mV/dec, which is the minimum theoretically determined at room temperature in conventional MOSFETs. Cyclic measurements of I S1-V LG characteristics at V D of (b) 2.0 and (c) 2.3 V. Triangle waveforms with amplitude of 0.6 V and center voltage of (b) −2.1 and (c) −2.3 V are applied to V LG. Frequencies of triangle waveforms are 1, 10, 100, and 1000 Hz. For clarity, I S1-V LG characteristics during ten periods of triangle waveforms applied to V LG are shown here. Voltages, V on and V off, at which current cut across 10−6 A in positive and negative sweeps of V LG, respectively, are also shown. (d) Histograms of 50 samples of V on and V off at V D of 2.3 V. Solid lines are fitting curves based on Gaussian distribution. Dotted lines indicate shifts of the peaks of Gaussian distributions.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Signal detection using SR in an SRT. (a) A schematic view for SR demonstration. V offset is the center of the square waveform. (b) Measured signals applied to the LG. Root mean squares of S noise are 0.128 and 0.096 Vrms, respectively. V offset is −2.6 V. For clarity, the top and middle lines are shifted vertically by 2 and 1 V, respectively. I S1-S in characteristics at V D of (c) 2.0 and (d) 2.3 when S noise superimposed on S in is changed. For clarity, each line in (c) and (d) is shifted by 1 and 2.5 μA, respectively. S in is the same as that in (b). (e) C characteristics as a function of S noise at various V D's. Solid lines are guides for the eyes. In the legend, SS at each V D is also shown. Open plots at V D of 2.0 and 2.1 V are theoretical plots8 fitted to the experimental results. Open squares at V D of 2.35 V are fitted to experimental curves at V D of 2.35 V by using MC simulation. (f) C-S noise characteristics simulated by an MC method with the assumption that V off is changed at constant V on of −2.35 V. The dotted arrow indicates the shift of peak values of C when V off is changed from −2.35 to −3.1 V. (g) A Schematic of energy diagram in a non-linear system when S in is “High” value and S out is still “Low” value. Schematics of energy diagrams in bistable systems (h) without and (i) with dynamic hysteresis loops. Closed circles and broken arrows represent S out, and its transition caused by S noise. Since S in is “High,” energy diagrams are modulated. While slope of energy diagram between “Low” and “High” becomes gentle in a non-linear system, energy at “High” becomes the global minima at a bistable system corresponding to hysteresis current characteristics. The dotted curve in (i) represents fluctuation of barrier height in the case of hysteresis characteristics with fluctuation of V on and V off.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Enhancement of SR in a SRT. (a) Simulated C-S noise characteristics of the multiple SRTs. We assume that each SRT has the same I S1 characteristics and that Von and Voff are without (lower figure) and with (upper figure) fluctuation of 0.06 V rms. The numbers of SRTs are 1, 2, 4, 8, 20, and 40. (b) Change in I D, I S1, and I S2 when S in superimposed on S noise is applied to the LG and S noise is changed. V D is 2.35 V. Each line is shifted by 0.25 μA. S in is the same as that in Fig. 3. (c) Change in C of I D, I S1, and I S2 when S noise is changed at V D of 2.35 V. The solid curves are guides for eyes. (d) Simulated C-S noise characteristics of I D, I S1, and I S2, with the assumption that V on and V off are without (lower graph) and with (upper graph) fluctuation of 0.04 V rms.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Detecting signals buried in noise via nanowire transistors using stochastic resonance