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Drawn resonator designs hybrid capacitor (left) and hybrid inductor (right) with fraction. The TiN (black) inter-digitated capacitors and meandered inductors are progressively replaced with Al (green). The frequency multiplexed resonators are capacitively coupled to the feedline.
Loss for (a) hybrid capacitor and (b) hybrid inductor resonators as a function of the electric field in the capacitor. The inset in (a) is the hybrid C loss plotted on a log scale to illustrate its characteristics at high power. The single photon levels are indicated. When Al is added to the capacitor, there is a greater increase in loss than if Al is added to the inductor. At higher fields the resonator loss reaches a minimum at an internal resonator power3,20 .
(a) The power dependent loss at 50 mK bath temperature versus Al capacitive fraction. As the TiN is replaced by the Al in the hybrid L (square) or hybrid C (triangle) devices, additional power dependent loss is measured and agrees with a linear fit.(b) The power independent loss, , versus the product of the Al inductance fraction × area.
The added loss measured in the hybrid L resonators as the 2nd stage temperature of the ADR is increased. The cold stage remains below 100 mK, which as shown in Fig. 5 does not add more loss. Greater loss is measured in devices which have larger Al percentages.
(a) Temperature dependent loss of the hybrid C (closed symbols) and hybrid L (open symbols) devices as a function of temperature. The devices are measured at high power and the 50 mK bath temperature loss is subtracted to reduce the contribution of any other loss terms. The lines are a guide to the eye. (b) The temperature dependent loss of all hybrid L and C resonators at 0.5 K versus Al inductance fraction agrees well to a linear fit.
(a) The temperature dependent loss (symbols) in the hybrid C devices versus Al fraction at different temperatures between 0.2-0.9 K. In the hybrid capacitor devices the fit (solid lines) to the temperature dependent loss of the 5 hybrid devices with Al is linear in Al fraction at all temperatures, but the extrapolations of these fits (dashed lines) do not intersect with the loss from the pure TiN device. (b) The interface loss, , from the y-intercept from (a), plotted vs temperature with an exponential fit (solid line).
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