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X-ray diffraction line scan for two-layer BFO/BFO-CFO (111) oriented thin film.
(a) AFM image for two-layer BFO/BFO-CFO (111) oriented thin film; (b) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of surface top view; (c) 45° cross-section view of one BFO/BFO-CFO film; (d) cross-section area after cutting by focus ion beam (FIB) of another BFO/BFO-CFO film. Marked regions indicate BFO nanopillars which act as seeds in the bottom layer. Area I: BFO top layer. Area II: BFO-CFO template layer. Area III: SrRuO3 electrode layer. Area IV: STO substrate.
(a) SEM image of cross-section area of lift-up slice from BFO/BFO-CFO thin film; (b) high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) image taken from a selected area of the SEM image given in (a); (c) lattice image of a higher resolution demonstrating a buffer zone between BFO and CFO phases; (d) and (e) power spectrum taken from CFO and BFO area from (c), respectively.
(a) P-E hysteresis loops and (b) longitudinal piezoelectric d33 coefficient as a function of dc electric bias for (111) oriented BFO/BFO-CFO nanocomposite thin films.
Magnetization or M-H hysteresis loops in both in-plane and out-of-plane directions for (111) oriented BFO/BFO-CFO nanocomposite thin films. The magnetization was normalized to the volume fraction of the CFO phase.
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