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(a) Schematic of real time x-ray scattering geometry during the growth of BiFeO3 films on SrTiO3 substrate. The incident x-ray beam (wave vector ki ) impinges on the sample surface at an incidence angle of α and the scattered beam (wave vector kf ) scatters at angle β. The wave-vector transfer is denoted by Q = kf – ki , which is indicated as a solid blue line for the specular diffracted (α = β) x-rays, and dashed magenta line for the diffuse scattered x-rays. An x-ray area detector covers a tilted portion of the Ewald sphere, resulting in an x-ray pattern with projections in Qx, Qy, and Qz. (b) Two-dimensional image of the (00 0.5) reciprocal position of the starting SrTiO3 substrate. This is a frame from a time scan during the deposition of the BiFeO3 film referred to as sample A 18 (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4765363.1]doi: 10.1063/1.4765363.1.
(a) and (c) are (00 0.5) specular and diffuse integrated intensities for samples A and B, respectively. (b) and (d) are Qy profiles for the same data for sample A and B, respectively. The dashed vertical lines represent the start and end of the depositions. Deposition is started at 100 s in each case for a total deposition time of 225 s for sample A, and 850 s for sample B.
Time slices of in-plane momentum transfer vector Qy for sample A where the times 174 s, 234 s, and 284 s correspond to first maximum, second minimum, second maximum, respectively, of the growth oscillations in Fig. 2(a) . The arrow indicates change in Qy at different stages during film growth.
AFM images of BiFeO3 on (001) SrTiO3 taken postdeposition for (a) sample A, (b) sample B.
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