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Schematic diagram of conventional and present nanoxerography. (a1) A non-conductive polymer coated substrate is prepared. (a2) A conductive stamp is in contact with a PR surface and negative charges are transferred onto the PR. (a3) and (a4) Due to the Coulombic force, nanoparticles are attracted to the negative surface charge pattern area. (b1) Positive ions are deposited on the PR surface. (b2) A prepatterned metal-coated stamp is contacted with the PR surface and transfers negative charges onto the PR, which replaces the positive ions with negative charges on the contacting area. (b3) Positively charged particles are focused toward the center of negatively charged surface via nanoscopic electrostatic lens induced by alternating bipolar surface charges. (b4) Nanoparticle pattern sizes are much reduced compared to the original negative charge patterns.
SEM images of nanoparticle patterns with unipolar and bipolar surface charge patterns. Assemblies of silver nanoparticles on the PR coated Si substrate in the case of [(a) and (c)] conventional unipolar charged (negative) and [(b) and (d)] bipolar charged patterns. The width of the stamp used to generate the charge patterns was 2 μm in all samples. Scale bars: 2 μm.
Numerical simulations of particle trajectory and deposition. (a) and (c) Particle trajectories of 30 silver nanoparticles and the corresponding histogram for final location of 1000 silver nanoparticles in the case of the conventional nanoxerography method. (b) and (d) Particle trajectories of 30 silver nanoparticles and the corresponding histogram for final location of 1000 silver nanoparticles in the case of the present nanoxerography method utilizing bipolar charge patterns.
Control of focusing extent by varying ion flow rates. AFM images of the metal coated PUA stamp having (a) 400-nm-wide line pattern and (b) 1-μm-wide concentric circle patterns. (c) 290-nm-wide and (e) 185-nm-wide line patterns consisting of 10-nm silver particles obtained under ion flow rates of 3 l min−1 and 5 l min−1, respectively. (d) 540-nm-wide and (f) 315-nm-wide concentric circle patterns consisting of 10-nm silver particles obtained under ion flow rates of 3 l min−1 and 5 l min−1, respectively. Scale bars: 5 μm.
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