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(a) Schematic representation of 3 + 1 plane wave interference for 3D lattice structures. k 0 , k 1 , k 2 , and k 3 are the wave vectors and θs is the angle subtended by side beams with the central axis. ξ is the angle between the projection of wave vector on the k x − k y plane and the k x axis. (b) Phase profile (c) Transverse plane intensity distribution. Here ψ0 is taken as 0.6 × π/4, while ψ s for all side beams is considered to be 0.
(a) Schematic of the experimental set up. P: Polarizer, HWP: Half wave plate, L1-L2: Lens, M1-M3: Mirror, DM: Dichroic mirror, MO: Microscope Objective. (b)–(e) Trapped microparticles in different lattice patterns: In (b), (d), and (e) 2 μm sized silica beads are trapped, while in (c) 0.5 μm polystyrene spheres are trapped.
(a) Schematic of multilayered 3D trapping in the interference pattern formed by 3 + 1 plane wave interference. (b) Computed 3D intensity distribution and three subsequent layers are shown on the right where the brightness variation in the consecutive layers are highlighted using circles in three lattice points belonging to three consecutive layers. (c) Schematic representation of transverse plane view from above of three layered particles along z-axis. (d) The view of (c) with reduced basis structure size confining to the lattice point centers.
Real-time 3D trapping of colloidal particles by the present 3 + 1 plane wave interference. Simultaneously 3 layers of ∼3 μm Si beads are trapped. One each particle belonging to three different layers with triangular symmetry are circled. The schematic on the left aids to differentiate the three layers. Media file 1 experimentally demonstrates the stable real-time multilayered 3D trapping. It is worthwhile noting here from the movie that although for the leftmost two positions of the hexagonal lattice contain two particles trapped one below another but for the rest of the positions single particles were present in the trap and these also show similar dark appearance (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4766342.1]10.1063/1.4766342.1
Controlled translation of trapped array of ∼2 μm sized 19 Si beads in hexagonal lattice structured interferometric traps. All scale bars ∼3 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4766342.2]10.1063/1.4766342.2
Controlled rotation of trapped array of ∼2 μm sized 19 Si beads in hexagonal lattice structured interferometric traps. All scale bars ∼3 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4766342.3]10.1063/1.4766342.3
3D chiral traps: (a) The schematic of the interfering beam configuration of 6 + 1 plane waves with engineered offset phase relative to one another for the seven beams. (b) The simulated intensity distribution of the 3D chiral lattice with hexagonal symmetry [Inset: One of the spirals is highlighted]. (c) to (j) Experimental demonstration of trapped microparticles (∼2 μm Si beads) in 3D chiral traps: The snap shots of the trapped particles in the helically shifted hexagonal chiral trap while the camera is axially translated. All scale bars ∼3 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4766342.4]10.1063/1.4766342.4
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