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(a) Diagram of the AFM/SMM head; (b) equivalent circuit displaying the origin of the microwave signal detected and, in the inset, EM3DS simulation (current density at 5.36 GHz) of the coplanar waveguide feeding the AFM tip (simplified structure).
STM (a) and SMM in time domain (b) image of a few layer graphene flake obtained by exfoliation of HOPG, deposited on ITO coated glass; note how SMM highlights quite well the border layers stacked below an upper layer (see, e.g., the white arrows; many other layers are easily identified).
(a) Image of C2C12 cells and bundle of nanotubes as seen at the optical microscope (magnification 100×), (b) AFM topographic image (flattened to remove substrate tilt) of a small portion (30 μm × 30 μm), (c) SMM in time domain: arrows indicate a tubular structure; (d) S11 recorded at a spatial point by the VNA.
Scan near the lower region of Figure 3, where nanotube bundle is located in (a) AFM and (b) SMM. Note how the center of the cellular fiber appears as a region of higher microwave absorption identifying the inner nanotube bundle (white arrow).
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