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Method for broadband photon-counting Raman spectroscopy in optical waveguides. SPD, single photon detector.
Experimental setup for SpRS measurement. ISO, isolator; WDM, wavelength-division multiplexer; ATT, attenuator; PC, polarization controller; Pol, inline polarizer; PM, power meter; BPF, band-pass filter; PBS, polarization beam splitter; ASE, amplified spontaneous emission; SPD, single-photon detector.
Measurement of the SpRS photon count rate with respect to detuning from the pump frequency at room temperature (293 K, red circles) and at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K, blue triangles).
Measurement of the SpRS photon count rate with respect to detuning from the pump frequency with polarization parallel (green diamonds) and perpendicular (brown squares) to the pump.
The Raman-gain (red circles) for glass extracted from the SpRS measurements and superimposed onto a spectrum from a bulk sample measured using the scattering method (dashed black line).17
The measured Stokes and predicted anti-Stoke SpRS for room temperature (red circles) and 77 K (blue triangles). The anti-Stokes calculation uses the extracted Raman-gain for the parallel polarized component of the Stokes SpRS.
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