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(a) A typical TEM image of austenite grains in a cold rolled sample with strain of ∼3; (b) a magnified image of the area marked with a white rectangle in (a); and (c) an atomic resolution image showing stacking faults, which are marked by white arrows in an austenite grain.
(a) A typical TEM image of austenite grains in a low strained area close to the centre of an HPT disk; (b) a typical TEM image of ferrite and austenite grains in the same area. White arrows mark a sharp and straight grain boundary between two ferrite grains. Black arrows indicate areas with dislocation tangling.
(a) A high magnification TEM image showing nanotwins in an austenite grain; (b) the statistical distribution of TBS; (c) an atomic resolution image of nanotwins; (d) a one-dimensional Fourier-filtered image of (c). The black arrows in (d) indicate the positions of the twin boundaries seen in (c). Two black “T” mark the cores of two dislocations.
The hardness of the as-received, cold-rolled, and HPT samples as a function of equivalent strain.
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