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(a) Energy E vs. real wave vector kx (black lines) and imaginary wave vector κ (red lines). The upper half is for electrons while the lower half is for holes. The arrows indicate propagation through the energy bandgap. (b) Energy band diagram in a constant electric field, showing the choice of energy reference E = 0. EC and EV are the conduction and valence band edges, while d is the tunneling distance.
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