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Schematic of the optical apparatus used to excite surface plasmons on the bottom surface of the growth chamber.
Early proliferation of cells when exposed to the evanescent field excited by surface plasmon resonance. (a)–(d) Time series fluorescence images of cell accumulation at 8 h intervals. Scale = 25 μm. (e) Graph showing the increase in cell coverage on the surface at 1 h intervals.
(a) Fluorescence image of a maturing biofilm after three days of growth under evanescent illumination conditions. The dashed red outline represents the shape of the laser beam and is positioned where the laser intensity reaches 1/e2 of its maximum intensity based on a Gaussian distribution. (b)Plot showing the concentration of cells as a function of radial distance from the center of the spot compared to the evanescent field strength at distances from the surface on the order of typical cell dimensions.
Laser scanning confocal microscope cross-sections of biofilms grown using (a) evanescent illumination excited through surface plasmon resonance and (b) direct broadband illumination. (c) Graph showing the cell volume fraction occupying each optical slice with respect to distance from the growth surface. Representative error bars are provided once for each case. It was possible to collect depth-wise cell density data up to 1.5 μm from the gold surface. The total cell volumes reported represent the total volume percentage of cells in the space extending from the gold surface to a height of 10.5 μm.
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