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(a) Schematic illustration of the domain configuration in the system. The arrows in the substrate indicate the direction of ferroelectric polarization, and the double-headed arrows in the Fe film represent the magnetic easy axes. The schematics on the right illustrate the in-plane lattice structure and polarization direction of the substrate and the orientation of the Fe film in the a and c domains. The room-temperature lattice parameters of the substrate and the in-plane strains of the Fe film are indicated. The strains are calculated relative to the Fe bulk lattice parameter on the basis of full strain transfer between substrate and film. A cross-sectional TEM image and a selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of a 10 nm thick epitaxial Fe film on (001) are shown in (b) and (c).
Kerr microscopy images of a 20 nm thick epitaxial Fe film on for different magnetic field angles () and field strength. The direction of magnetic field was altered by sample rotation in the Kerr microscope while the electromagnet was fixed. Negative fields point down and positive fields point up in the above images. The white arrows indicate the direction of magnetization within selected a and c domains as inferred from a set of two images with the magneto-optical contrast axis () along the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively.
Magnetic hysteresis curves of single a (top row) and c (bottom row) domains measured at different magnetic field angles. The red lines and arrows in the circular symbols indicate the easy magnetization axes and the direction of magnetization during different stages of the reversal process. The vertical red dashed lines illustrate simultaneous magnetic switching in the a and c domains.
Experimental polar plots of (a) the remnant magnetization and (b)the magnetic switching fields of the a (black solid lines) and c (red dashed lines) magnetic stripe domains. (c) Polar plot of the switching fields for isolated uniaxial a and biaxial c domains as determined by micromagnetic simulations. For both domains, an anisotropy constant of was used in the simulations.
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