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Cross section of VCSEL array. Dashed line shows preferential current path from left contact.
Out-of-phase (a-c) and in-phase (d-f) VCSEL arrays. Images from an SEM (a,d), while lasing (b,e), and of the processed near field (c,f), where the red lines delineate the apertures used for simulation.
Far field profiles for arrays operating out-of-phase (a) and in-phase (b) under current injection to the left and right apertures shown on the left and right of each plot, respectively. The propagated-Gaussian profile in (b) shows the decrease in accuracy when a best-fit Gaussian approximation is used for the array elements in the near field. Profiles taken along slices are shown in 2D insets.
Phase, coherence, and wavelength vs. current injection difference for the (a) out-of-phase and (b) in-phase VCSEL array.
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