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Schematic cross-sections of the HJ solar cells fabricated on (a) n-type and (b) p-type c-Ge substrates.
Effective minority carrier lifetimes measured by μ-PCD on n-type and p-type c-Ge substrates passivated by intrinsic a-Si:H or μc-Si:H layer on both sides, as a function of annealing temperature. Annealing was performed in dry nitrogen ambient for 10 min.
Atomic concentration of hydrogen in ∼50 nm thick a-Si:H and ∼40 nm thick μc-Si:H films grown on p-type c-Ge substrates measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for as-deposited films and films annealed at 225 °C or 325 °C for 10 min.
Schematic energy band alignment at the heterojunction formed by a-Si:H or μc-Si:H on c-Ge for (a) n-type c-Ge and (b) p-type c-Ge substrates.
Evolution of the light I–V curves of p-type c-Ge solar cells with n+ doped a-Si:H/μc-Si:H emitter contact and aluminum back contact (no back surface field) as a function of annealing temperature.
Light I–V characteristics of the fabricated HJ solar cells showing conversion efficiencies of 5.9% and 7.2% under an intensity of 1 sun on n-type and p-type c-Ge substrates, respectively.
Comparison of the substrate properties and electrical characteristics of the HJ c-Ge solar cells presented in this work with the highest efficiency diffused-junction c-Ge cells (Ref. 5 ).
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