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Representation of conductivity restoration in a gold line (a) before damage when the sample and microcapsules are intact; (b) immediately after damage, showing fracture of gold line and release of SWCNTs and/or graphene from microcapsules; and (c) after restoration, where the conductive particles have bridged the gap in the gold line. Schematics representing test sample geometry: top view (d) and side view (e) in proportion to one another and a side view of the sample showing contents of the layers (f).
An ideal representation of carbon nanotubes bridging a gap in a gold line with preferential orientation due to electric field migration. This image is not drawn to scale.
TEM images of dried initial suspensions on lacy carbon grids (a)–(c), optical microscopy images of resultant microcapsules suspended in mineral oil (d)–(f), and SEM images of resultant microcapsules coated with Au/Pd (g)–(i) containing (i) 1:1::P3HT:SWCNT in DCB (a, d, g), (ii) 2:1:1::P3HT:SWCNT:graphene in DCB (b, e, h) and (iii) 1:1::P3HT:graphene in DCB (c, f, i).
Raman (a) and (b) and UV-vis-NIR (c) and (d) spectra of films of dried suspensions before incorporation into microcapsules (a) and (c) and dried suspensions after release from microcapsule cores (b) and (d), where suspensions contained 1:1::P3HT:SWCNT (A, red), 2:1:1::P3HT:SWCNT:graphene (B, green), and 1:1::graphene:P3HT (C, blue). Absorbance spectra display P3HT absorption at around 500–600 nm, the first-order metallic SWCNT optical transition at 700–800 nm, and the second-order semiconducting SWCNT optical transition around 1000 nm. Raman spectra show G band features at ca. 1580 cm−1 and second order G′ Raman scattering peaks at ca. 2700 cm−1.
(a)–(c) Normalized bridge voltage vs. time for fractured samples with microcapsules containing a 2:1:1::P3HT:SWCNT:graphene suspension. Examples are shown for full conductivity restoration (a), partial conductivity restoration (b), and no restoration (c). (d) Plot of full and partial healing percentages observed for each microcapsule type.
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