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Effect of a calcium cathode on water-based nanoparticulate solar cells
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10.1063/1.4737640
/content/aip/journal/apl/101/5/10.1063/1.4737640
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/5/10.1063/1.4737640

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Variation of PCE with number of deposited layers for PFB:F8BT nanoparticulate OPV devices fabricated with an Al cathode (filled circles) and a Ca/Al cathode (open circles). Dotted and dashed lines have been added to guide the eye. An average error has been determined based upon the variance for a minimum of ten devices for each number of layers.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Variation of current density as a function of applied voltage (J-V) for the most efficient PFB:F8BT 1:1 NP devices fabricated with Ca/Al (4 NP layers, solid line) and Al (5 NP layers, dashed line) cathodes. Also plotted are the J-V curves for PFB:F8BT 1:1 BHJ devices fabricated with Ca/Al (filled circles) and Al (open circles) cathodes.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

EQE as a function of incident wavelength for PFB:F8BT 1:1 NP devices fabricated with Ca/Al (4 NP layers, solid line) and Al (5 NP layers, dashed line) cathodes. Also plotted are the EQE spectra for PFB:F8BT 1:1 BHJ devices fabricated with Ca/Al (filled circles) and Al (open circles) cathodes.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Energy level diagrams for PFB:F8BT nanoparticles in the presence of calcium. (a) Calcium diffuses to nanoparticle surface. (b) Calcium dopes PFB-rich shell producing gap states. Electron transfer occurs from calcium producing filled gap states. (c) An exciton generated on PFB approaches the doped PFB material (PFB*) and a hole transfers to the filled gap state producing a more energetic electron. (d) Electron transfer from an exciton generated on F8BT to either the higher energy PFB LUMO or the filled lower energy PFB* LUMO is hindered.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Comparison of device characteristics for the most efficient PFB:F8BT 1:1 NP devices fabricated with Ca/Al (4 NP layers) and Al (5 NP layers) cathodes and the corresponding BHJ devices. The data presented are for the best device of a minimum of ten devices and the ΔPCE error is obtained from the standard deviation of the device efficiencies. The values are calculated from the calibrated short circuit currents obtained by combining the measured EQE spectra with the AM1.5 spectrum () (see supplementary material).

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/content/aip/journal/apl/101/5/10.1063/1.4737640
2012-07-30
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Effect of a calcium cathode on water-based nanoparticulate solar cells
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/101/5/10.1063/1.4737640
10.1063/1.4737640
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