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Mesoscale bead-spring model of VACNT arrays. (a) A CNT bundle of dimension . (b) Carbon nanotubes are modeled as lines of beads interacting with coarse-grained potentials; , , and in (b) are tension, bending, and side bond stiffnesses, respectively. (c) Local magnified view showing relatively sparse side bonds near the bottom of the CNT array.
Deformation patterns of a CNT bundle under compressive strains of (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) . (e) The corresponding stress-strain curve.
Compressive stress-strain curves of CNT bundles with different CNT radii. Note that upon unloading, the stress remains compressive in the case of CNT radius equal to 8 nm while it becomes increasingly tensile in the cases of smaller CNT radii.
Analytical criterion for deformation recovery in a CNT bundle. (a) Schematic illustration of competing elastic and adhesive interactions in the CNT array. (b) Stable configurations of CNT folds from simulations in thecase of . In this case, the adhesion energy dominates and the CNT folds remain stable even after the external compressive load is removed, resulting in irrecoverable deformation. (c) Unstable configurations of CNT folds from simulations in the case of . In this case, the elastic energy dominates and the side bond region in (a) spontaneously expands upon unloading, leading to unzipping of the folded CNT arrays.
List of parameters used in the mesoscale bead-spring model.
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