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Geometries of graphene/metal and graphene/Sn-metal interfaces. Each configuration is labeled according to the position of a C atom with respect to the underlying substrate. The elemental unit cells of graphene/metal and graphene/Sn-metal interfaces are marked by thick yellow dashed lines.
LDOS of C atoms in freestanding graphene (black-line), graphene/metal interfaces (red line) and graphene/Sn-metal interfaces (green line). Top panel (a) – Ni; bottom panel (b) – Cu. Fermi energy is chosen as a reference point for the energy scale.
Simulated constant current STM images of bare Sn/metal surface alloy substrate (a), and graphene on Sn/metal surface alloy substrate (b) and (c). Left column corresponds to Ni, right – to Cu. Panel (c) contains the same STM images as in (b), but plotted with different contrast by filtering the STM tip heights to be in the interval Å. As is seen from (c), the STM image of graphene on Sn-Ni(111) substrate displays brighter spots corresponding to C atoms positioned directly above Sn atoms within the substrate. For graphene on the Sn-Cu(111) substrate, C atoms directly above Sn are a little bit darker than other C atoms.
Atomic properties of simple and alloy graphene/metal interfaces. Binding energy is calculated per C atom. Interface distances d in alloy interfaces are measured from the topmost Sn atom to graphene.
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