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Schematic plot of a two-dimensional axisymmetric FE model, where the medium and cytosol are all treated as water and denotes the electrostatic traction on the membrane/water interfaces.
(a) Radial stress and strain distribution under an applied electric field of Vm = 0.8 V. The inset (A1) is the deformation morphology from the FE calculations. (b) Plot of all energy terms as functions of the pore radius r. See supplementary material31 for a sequence of the strain energy levels as a function of pore radius and the corresponding pore expansion results (enhanced online) [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4739940.1]10.1063/1.4739940.1
Total free energy variation as a function of pore radius under transmembrane voltages of 0.3, 0.64, 0.8, and 1.0 V, where Γ = 10−3 J/m2 and γ = 1.8 × 10−11 J/m for RBC membranes.12,26 The energy curve without including the strain energy under transmembrane potential of 0.8 V is also plotted for comparison.
Activation energy Ua and equilibrium pore radius re as functions of the transmembrane potential (Vm ). The inset shows the experimental data of versus 1/T, whose slope determines the activation energy, and the critical transmembrane potential (Vm , c ) determined from the activation energy can be obtained accordingly: 0.82 V indicated with arrow “A”. In addition, the published transmembrane potentials are also included in the figure by arrow “a” (0.72 V): chicken RBC;27 arrow “b” (1.27 V): HeLa cell;28 arrow “c” (1.31 V): mouse embryonic fibroblasts;29 arrow “d” (1.33 V): bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.30
Changes in the total free energy during the electropore formation and resealing processes. Along curve (a), an activated pore reaches its equilibrium point; (b) indicates a jump in the total energy due to the removal of the applied electric field; and along curve (c), the pore reseals by release of the stored strain energy in the membrane.
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