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Perspective view of nucleation and ledge flow in NWs at their faceted surface and triple-phase boundary (a) in the absence of defects (b) at the triple-phase intersection with stacking fault, marked by blue arrow, (c) and at triple-phase intersection with one of two SF2 leading to a new stacking fault (dashed red line) near SF2. (d) HRTEM image of a GaAs NW with multiple surface-nucleated SFs and a TB marked by dashed lines. In any region bounded by two faults, a successive increase in the density of SFs (numbered ≥ 2) outgoing from the surface-nucleated SFs or SF/TB is observed.
Schematic representation of the generation mechanism: (a) Layer nucleation (blue star) at SF2 and subsequent layer growth in a NW with two defects. (b) Switching nucleation to SF1 and subsequent ledge propagation toward SF2 encounters a step at SF2 resulting in the generation of an additional SF (marked 2) near SF2. (c) Repetition of the process in (b) leads to generation of successive SFs in between the two surface-nucleated SFs.
(a) TEM image of the GaAs NW of Figure 1 showing multiple surface-nucleated stacking faults running in  direction and are therefore preserved as the NW kinks from a  to a  orientation. (b) HRTEM image showing that the generated defects prevail in the newly kinked wire. (c) HRTEM image showing that SN-SF1 annihilates just before the kink (marked “c” in panel (a)).
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