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Cross-sectional SEM images of CZTSe solar cells. After CZTSe deposition, the samples were annealed at (a) 570 °C (A4), (b) 540 °C (A3), (c) 510 °C (A2), and (d) 480 °C (A1) under Se atmosphere whose partial pressure was larger than equilibrium Se vapor pressure at each annealing temperature.
(a)–(c) Room temperature PL spectra of CZTSe samples: (a) samples A1–A4; (b) samples B1–B3; (c) sample TiN2. EQE of A4 and B1 are shown in the inset of (a). (d) TR-PL spectra of some representative samples.
(a) Dark-field cross-sectional TEM image focusing on the bottom interface of CZTSe solar cell of 8.9% efficiency—sample C1(TiN). (b) Elemental profiles determined by EDX line scans. The scan direction is indicated by the arrow in (a).
J-V curves of 8.9% efficiency CZTSe solar cell with a TiN layer [sample C1 (TiN)] under dark (blue) and 1 sun illumination (red). Normalized EQE is shown in the inset.
List of CZTSe samples with their annealing conditions, photovoltaic parameters, and MoSe2 interfacial thickness. In sample set A, post-deposition annealing temperature is varied while Se partial pressure during the annealing is kept similar. In sample set B, Se partial pressure is varied at a fixed annealing temperature, 540 °C. In sample set TiN, ∼20 nm thick TiN diffusion barrier is inserted between CZTSe and Mo back contact.
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