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(a) Experimental Schottky barrier heights of metal silicides7,8 and pure metals10 on Si, plotted against the work function of the metal or silicide. Taking the CNL as the SBH value at the Si work function (−4.85 eV), then CNL = 0.40 eV for Si:metal interfaces and CNL = 0.47 eV for Si:silicide interfaces. (b) Experimental and calculated Schottky barrier heights of silicides plotted against work functions of the parent metals.
(a) Valence charge density of Si:NiSi2, with a non-polar spread between Ni and Si sites. The large charge density near Ni is the 3d electrons. (b) Valence charge density of Si:YSi2 with valence charge localised near Si in the silicide. (c) Interface structure of (111)Si:YSi2.
Highest occupied state for (a) NiSi2 A, (b) NiSi2 B, (c) YSi2, and (d) Fe3Si.
(a). How surface Si dangling bonds develop into MIGS on a metal-covered surface. (b) For a silicide interface, all Si DBs are bonded to Si atoms, leaving metal DBs in silicide to form the interface states. Metal DB energies vary with metal work function, unlike the CNL.
Calculated Schottky barrier heights of metal di-germanides plotted against the parent metal work function.
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