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Self-assembled nanograting induced by femtosecond laser irradiation (λ = 1045 nm) inside fused silica. SEM image with backscattered electrons is taken of not chemically etched sample. Two periodicities (along the light propagation and electric field directions) can be clearly seen. The arrows indicate light propagation and electric field E polarization directions, n = 1.45 is the refractive index of fused silica.
Theoretical simulation of the formation of the nanograting. (a) A schematic of the exciton-polariton dispersion, showing a point on the upper polariton branch (UP) and a point on the lower polariton branch (LP) with the same group velocity, and their splitting in energy ΔE (not to scale). (c) shows the grating in x and in z, while (b) shows a zoom of the grating in the z-direction. In (c) the exciton mean free path is taken as d = 300 nm and the exciton mass equal to the free electron mass. Time, t = 300 fs relative to the arrival of the light pulse at z = 0. ℏωLT = 0.5 meV, ℏγ = 1 meV, ne = 105 cm−1, and εb = 3.
Ultrafast optical recording via self-assembled nanograting induced birefringence in fused silica. Maxwell and Newton are recorded in one image (left, in pseudo colors), however, they can be easily decoupled as Maxwell is recorded in strength of retardance (center) and Newton in azimuth of the slow axis (right). Size is 1.5 × 2 mm.
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