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The ratios of contact area with using Al84.5Y10Ni5.5, Al85Y8Ni5Co2, and Al86Ni6Y4.5Co2La1.5 are 0.34, 0.60, and 0.11, respectively. SEM images were taken after Ag electrodes removed.
I-V curve and summary of cell parameters correspond to the interdigitated back contact cell fabricated. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 19.6% was achieved at 1-sun concentration and AM 1.5G. The area and thickness of the cell were 154.8 cm2 and 130 μm, respectively.
Cross sectional TEM image of the interface between the Ag electrode and the Si emitter; the inset is a magnified image of the area in the dotted box, which shows both an interlayer formed between the Ag and the Si substrate and EDX line profile.
Schematic illustration of the mechanism of contact formation: (a) cross sectional view of as-printed electrode, (b) TPF of the MG frits in SCLR, (c) Ag-Al binary eutectic melting at 567 °C, (d) Ag-Al-Si ternary eutectic melting at 600 °C, and (e) formation of SiOx layer while cooling.
The directly measured ρc (dots and error bars) were fitted with a 35 meV tunneling barrier height (red line), and the red line indicates the relationship between ρc and the interlayer thickness corresponding to Eq. (2).
Specific contact resistances, electrical resistivities, and contact areas of Ag electrodes with various Al based MG frits, heat capacity change (ΔCp), Tg, Tx, ΔTx, normalized parameter, S = ΔTx/(Tl − Tg), and GFA of the MG frits, and electrical resistivities of ribbons with the same composition of the frits. The electrical resistivities of the ribbons were measured after annealing at 600 °C for 5 min in air, and S was estimated based on the values of Tg, Tx, and Tl in the previous reports.
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