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Biological colloid engineering: Self-assembly of dipolar ferromagnetic chains in a functionalized biogenic ferrofluid
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) TEM photograph of magnetite chain inside Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1; (b) TEM photograph of bulk aggregate of isolated biogenic magnetite with the black arrow pointing toward structure shown in (c) TEM photograph of flux-closure ring.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) DIC micrograph of filamentous magnetic nanoparticle chains during formation in solution; (b–d) A sequence of DIC micrographs showing disruption of the filamentous chain by an advancing, drying solvent front. Scale bar = 40 μm (enhanced online). [URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4742329.1]10.1063/1.4742329.1

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Scheme showing functionalization of biogenic magnetite with avidin and (b) functionalization of a borosilicate glass substrate with biotin, and final assembly of the glass-magnetite composite. The avidin functionalized surface is left exposed for binding with biotinylated polymers for biomimetic system integration; (c) Magnetite particles functionalized with avidin-Texas Red fluorophore shown with DIC microscopy and (d) fluorescent microscopy. Scale bar = 40 μm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(a) Phase-contrast micrograph showing dried ferrofluid aggregate with self-assembled dipolar chains (white arrow) positioned radially at the perimeter of an extruded (black arrow) salt crystal (scale bar = 400 μm); (b)Phase contrast micrograph showing self-assembled, dipolar chain using the described chemistry (scale bar = 25 μm); (c-e) Phase contrast micrographs of different size individual chain assemblies (scale bars = 15 μm); (f)size distribution of linear structures from three samples (n = 182) with mean length of 15.64 + 1.96 μm (standard error of the mean).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) Schematic illustrating competition between side-to-side and end-to-end binding of chains. The model assumes that pairs of free chains can anneal in either configuration, but with different kinetics, yielding relatively faster equilibration of side-to-side binding. (b) Schematic of surface-binding as an irreversible reaction transforming free chains to surface-bound chain bundles. Exchange of unbound chains from bound partners provides a mechanism to separate aggregates and produce a high yield of individual chains.



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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Biological colloid engineering: Self-assembly of dipolar ferromagnetic chains in a functionalized biogenic ferrofluid