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(a) SEM image of SWCNTs at 62 mg/m2, (b) optical microscopy image of AgNWs at 160 mg/m2. (c) Optical transmittance at 550 nm vs. nanoparticle densities. The dashed curves are the Lambert-Beer fit to the data points. (d) Optical transmittance vs. sheet resistance of SWCNT and AgNW electrodes.
(a) Schematic of circular actuator configuration used to simultaneously record stretch, optical transmittance of the electrodes as a function of applied voltage. (b) Examples of actuation stretch as a function of voltage. The letters A and S refer to AgNW and SWCNT, respectively, and the number is the nanoparticle density in mg/m2.
Examples of actuation stretch as a function of electrical field for elastomer electrodes containing (a) SWCNT and (b) AgNW. Inset plot in (a) indicates actuation stretch is limited by the percolation threshold for low optical density SWCNT electrodes.
Actuation stretch as a function of (a) SWCNT and (b) AgNW electrode optical density. Data is shown at a potential of 3000 V (triangles), at electrical field of 150 V/μm (squares), and at maximum stretch or breakdown (circles). Data for carbon grease electrodes are shown for comparison.
Figure of merit (FOM) for actuation at various electrode optical densities illustrating that SWCNT electrodes exhibit significantly higher FOM relative to AgNW electrodes. The maximum possible figure of merit is represented by the dashed curve, which is the actuation strain of carbon grease.
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