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Schematics of (a) standard structure and (b) CISS structure of perpendicular STT-MRAM.
Magnetization switching in the CISS structure at T = 0 K: Normalized magnetization vector (m) as a function of the time for (a) P-to-AP switching with Iapp = +30 μA and (b) AP-to-P switching with Iapp = −30 μA. The saturation magnetization of free layer with in-plane anisotropy (i-FL) is 800 kA/m. (c) Frequency power spectra of in-plane free layer and perpendicular free layer, obtained from Fourier transformation of mx with the time window of 10 ns and T = 0 K. The dotted white lines indicate the switching thresholds.
(a) Switching current as a function of the saturation magnetization (MS ) of free layer with in-plane anisotropy (i-FL). All calculations have been done at T = 300 K. (b) Thermal stability factor (=KeffV/kBT 300) as a function of MS of i-FL.
Switching current distribution: (a) Switching probability (PSW ) as a function of applied current (Iapp ). (b) dPSW /dIapp as a function of Iapp . (c) Switching current (ISW ) as a function of the current pulse width (τ). (d) Switching current distribution (=σ) as a function of τ. In (c) and (d), black open square symbols correspond to the standard structure whereas red open circle (blue open up triangle) symbols correspond to the P-to-AP (AP-to-P) switching of the CISS structure. The inset of (d) shows the ratio of σ to ISW as a function of τ.
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