banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Nonthermal carrier distributions in the subbands of 2-phonon resonance mid-infrared quantum cascade laser
Rent this article for


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Conduction band edge in the device used in the calculations (line) and local densities (color maps) of states for k = 0 (a) and electrons (b). Calculations are for temperature T = 300 K and threshold bias of U = 208 mV/period. Numbering scheme of energy levels in AR adopted from Ref. 4.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) I-V curves at 300 K (b) threshold current calculated for various scattering mechanisms included in NEGF formalism and several values of roughness step height (lines) compared to experiment of Ref. 6 (circles).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(a) Gain spectrum calculated for the increasing current density at T = 300 K. (b) Gain peak vs current density and temperature.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

k-resolved densities of (a) states and (b) electrons in AR (c) current through extraction barrier , all calculated for the threshold bias: U = 208 mV/period, at 300 K.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

k-resolved populations of laser subbands: upper (o) and lower (+) for current density vs temperature.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) k-resolved populations of laser subbands plotted as a function of total kinetic energy E. Calculations are for T = 300 K and threshold bias. Dashed lines are the plots of Fermi-Dirac distributions. Note that thermally backfilled carriers populating low energy states in subbands 1, 2, 3 share common quasi-Fermi level. (b) Lower limit of escape rate calculated as the ratio of current through extraction barrier to the charge in AR. Lines show the loci of AR subbands.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) Gain peak at various temperatures (b) gain spectrum at T = 400 K, all calculated for threshold currents according to the theory in Ref. 12 (terms with omitted) versus maximum momentum of k-states taken in gain calculations.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Parameters used in the calculations.


Article metrics loading...


Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Nonthermal carrier distributions in the subbands of 2-phonon resonance mid-infrared quantum cascade laser